Primary Battery Manufacturer
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
 

Primary Batteries

 
     
In recent decades, lithium has literally transformed the potential of primary batteries. These battery systems have come to dominate the high-performance primary battery market—in everything from medical implants to high performance military applications such as space sensors and missile power—due to the light weight, high voltage and energy output, and outstanding shelf life of lithium chemistries. While all lithium cells share these and other generalized benefits, Quallion’s customers can select from several lithium chemistries that have specialized characteristics and applications.

Lithium/Carbon Monoflouride (CFx) batteries were among the first commercially successful lithium battery systems. They have remained so attractive because the chemistry delivers very high energy density, long storage life, very good safety record, wide temperature, and very low self-discharge. These batteries are found in a wide range of low-to-medium current applications for military, aerospace, electronics, and medical customers. The following summarizes the general characteristics for CFx chemistry:
     
 
Nominal Voltage: 3.2 V; operating voltage 2.5-2.7 V
Specific Energy: 590 Wh/k
Energy Density: 1050 Wh/L
Temperature Range: -40°C to 85°C
Self Discharge: 0.5% per year (at 20°C)
 
     
  Quallion offers specialized technology improvements to its CFx cells and batteries geared for the medical, aerospace and military markets. These improvements draw upon Quallion’s extensive knowledge of Li-ion cell manufacturing technologies.  These improvements have allowed the company to build large size CFx cells (15 Ahr D-size) capable of relatively high rates of discharge (C/5) and an operational capability over a wide temperature range (-30°C to 60°C).  
     
  Quallion CFx D-cell. Capacity:
15Ah, Diameter: 34 mm, Height: 60.5 mm
 
     
   
   
  The jellyroll inside of a D-cell case. There are more than 30 winds present inside the D-cell case. 13b. The flexible thin-film coated CFx electrode used inside the D-cell.  
     
   
     
  Quallion also has unique chemistry enhancements that improve end-of-life detection for CFx chemistries.  It is common practice for medical devices to be explanted prematurely due to the inability to accurately determine the battery’s remaining capacity. This is due in large part to the flat discharge curve of primary chemistries (see graph showing traditional CFx technology).  Quallion’s technology eliminates this concern through the use of specialized enhancements that provided a discharge step-function near the end-of-life allowing the device to more precisely predict the battery’s True End-of-Life™ (see graph showing Quallion’s TEOL™ technology.  
     
  Traditional CFx Technology Compared to Quallion’s New  True End-of-Life (TEOL) TM Technology:  
     
   
   
     
  High Rate Vanadium Chemistry batteries have been designed for use in cardiac defibrillators and other biomedical applications. They offer excellent durability and high specific energy, power, and energy density for these products. SVO batteries are commonly used in defibrillators, neurostimulators, and drug infusion systems. More specific details about their characteristics are as follows:  
     
 
Nominal Voltage: 3.2/2.8/2.2/1.8 V (multi-step discharge)
Specific Energy: up to 270 Wh/kg
Energy Density: up to 780 Wh/L
Current: 310mAh/kg steady current and 1-2 Amp pulses
Capable of continuous operation at nominal temperature of 37°C
 
     
  Quallion’s Vanadium  series offers specialized technology improvements that draw upon Quallion’s extensive knowledge of Li-ion cell manufacturing technologies. These enhancements allow Quallion to deliver more energy than traditional SVO and CFx/SVO hybrid technologies, without the incumbent Voltage Delay issues.  
     
   
 
Tall BTE 370
Volume: 6.3cc
Capacity: 1492mAh
Capacity (2.35V): 1042mAh
Capacity (1.7V): 1180mAh
   
 
  Lithium/Manganese Dioxide (Li/MnO2) are used in many applications due to their high voltage, long shelf life, relatively low cost, excellent safety record, and wide temperature range. These batteries are found in many consumer electronic devices, memory backup applications, and specialized military products. More specific details about their characteristics are as follows:  
     
 
Nominal Voltage: 3 V; operating voltage 3.1-3.3 V
Specific Energy: above 230 Wh/kg
Energy Density: above 535 Wh/L
Temperature Range: -20°C to 60°C
Self Discharge: less than 1% per year
 
     
  Quallion offers various cylindrical Li/MnO2 options.